BANANA GUIDE OF FERTILIZATION
Oct 31, 2016

Growing Banana and getting high yield is a task that requires profound knowledge and expertise. Best fertilization regime should be based on leaf or soil analysis. Here are just some of the information for reference :

 BANANA

The banana plant is the largest herbaceous flowering plant. All the above-ground parts of a banana plant grow from a structure usually called a "corm". Plants are normally tall and fairly sturdy, and are often mistaken for trees, but what appears to be a trunk is actually a "false stem" or pseudostem. Bananas grow in a wide variety of soils, as long as the soil is at least 60 cm deep, has good drainage and is not compacted. The leaves of banana plants are composed of a "stalk" (petiole) and a blade (lamina). The base of the petiole widens to form a sheath; the tightly packed sheaths make up the pseudostem, which is all that supports the plant. The edges of the sheath meet when it is first produced, making it tubular. As new growth occurs in the centre of the pseudostem the edges are forced apart. Cultivated banana plants vary in height depending on the variety and growing conditions.

The banana is an edible fruit, botanically a berry, produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus Musa. In some countries, bananas used for cooking may be called plantains. The fruit is variable in size, color and firmness, but is usually elongated and curved, with soft flesh rich in starch covered with a rind which may be green, yellow, red, purple, or brown when ripe. The fruits grow in clusters hanging from the top of the plant.

The vast majority of the world's bananas today are cultivated for family consumption or for sale on local markets. India is the world leader in this sort of production, but many other Asian and African countries where climate and soil conditions allow cultivation also host large populations of banana growers who sell at least some of their crop. In east Africa, highland bananas are of greatest importance as a staple food crop.

FERTILIZATION

Nitrogen - Nitrogen applications should be split into several dressings, ranging from intervals of 1-3 months in a relatively dry climate, to every 2-4 weeks in humid tropical areas. Urea is not recommended for dry land conditions.

Phosphate - Phosphorous requirement is not large, and deficiency symptoms are rarely seen in the field. It is relatively mobile and can be re-utilized in the plant. P may be leached if drip irrigation is employed. Under such conditions frequent P applications may be needed.

Potassium - Potassium is a key element in banana tree nutrition. Insufficient K supply reduces the total dry matter production in the plant, and its distribution within the plant. The organ most drastically affected is the bunch. The most universal symptom of K deficiency is the appearance of orange-yellow chlorosis of the oldest leaves and their subsequent rapid death. Other effects are reduced leaf size, delay in flower initiation, reduced fruit number/bunch and hand number/bunch, and especially - fruit size. Sudden shortages of K can occur if the K release rates of the soil do not match changes in seasonal demand for K by the plant. In these instances the plant may initiate its bunch well, and then, the leaf system will suddenly collapse as K is withdrawn from the leaves to supply the needs of the growing fruit.Potassium application method is generally similar to that of nitrogen, but dressing should be less at the beginning of growth period, and increased immediately before and after flowering.

Other Nutrients - Ca, Mg, Cl, S, Mn, Fe, Zn, B also effected the yield and quality of banana.

Fertilization - The best fertilization practice for subtropical regions is to divide the entire amount of fertilizers by the number of irrigation weeks. The fertilizers are supplied therefore, in weekly doses. Best fertilization regime should be based on leaf or soil analysis.

Suggested fertilizers

NPK 20-20-20+TE Nitrate-based Water Soluble fertilizer

     Application period:  Seedling period

     Fertilization method:  Foliar nitrition or Fertigation or Dripirrigation with 30-50g/plant at 7-10 days intervals

NPK 20-20-20+TE Nitrate-based Water Soluble fertilizer

     Application period:  At the beginning of growing period

     Fertilization method:  Foliar nitrition or Fertigation or Dripirrigation with 50-80g/plant at 7-10 days intervals

 

NPK 10-6-42+TE Nitrate-based Water Soluble fertilizer

     Application period:  Flowering period and Fruit growing period 

     Fertilization method:  Foliar nitrition or Fertigation or Dripirrigation with 50-80g/plant at 7-10 days intervals

NPK 10-6-42+TE Nitrate-based Water Soluble fertilizer

     Application period:  Harvest period 

     Fertilization method:  Foliar nitrition or Fertigation or Dripirrigation with 30-50g/plant at 7-10 days intervals

 

NPK 20-5-30+TE Nitrate-based Water Soluble fertilizer

     Application period:  From the beginning of growing period to Harvest

     Fertilization method:  Foliar nitrition or Fertigation or Dripirrigation with 30-50g/plant at 7-10 days intervals