RICE CROP GUIDE OF FIELD MANAGEMENT & FERTILIZATION
Dec 06, 2016

RICE CROP

As a cereal grain, rice is the most widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in Asia.Rice cultivation is well-suited to countries and regions with low labor costs and high rainfall, as it is labor-intensive to cultivate and requires ample water. However, rice can be grown practically anywhere, even on a steep hill or mountain area with the use of water-controlling terrace systems.Generally, rice does not thrive in a waterlogged area, yet it can survive and grow herein.

Rice is the staple food of over half the world's population. It is the predominant dietary energy source for 17 countries in Asia and the Pacific, 9 countries in North and South America and 8 countries in Africa. Rice provides 20% of the world’s dietary energy supply, while wheat supplies 19% and maize (corn) 5%.

HOW ABOUT A RICE PLANT GROWING




Nutrient Uptake By Rice Crop

The amount of plant nutrients uptake by rice crop, based on the yield. More plant nutrients uptake can be expected at higher yields.

Rice Crop Guide

Growing rice and getting high yield is a task that requires profound knowledge and expertise. Here are just some of the information, facts and recommendations you will find in this rice crop guide:

Farmers in Asia achieve, on average, about 60% only of the yield potentially achievable with existing varieties and climatic conditions.

About 75% of the global rice production comes from irrigated rice systems, because most rice varieties express their full yield potential when water supply is adequate.

Consistent water depth has been shown to improve the rice plants' ability to compete against weeds for nutrients and sunlight, reducing the need for herbicides.

Harvest management preserves rice quality and yield that contribute directly to profit. Timing field draining and harvest are keys to high head rice yield.

Modern high-yielding rice varieties absorb potassium in greater quantities than any other essential nutrient.

Potassium fertilization field trials increased yields in 20 percent of the trial sites.

Fertilizer N use efficiency in lowland rice may be maximized through a better timing of application to coincide with the stages of peak requirement of the crop, and placement of N fertilizer in the soil.

Proper phosphorus (P) nutrition is critical for producing maximum rice grain yields. Phosphorus is very important in the early vegetative growth stages. Phosphorus promotes strong early plant growth and development of a strong root system.

Foliar feeding has proved to be the fastest way of curing nutrient deficiencies and boosting plant performances at specific physiological stages.

Field research has established the critical concentrations of P, K, and Zn in the soil by correlating soil test values of these mineral nutrients and rice plant performance.

Fertilization

Nitrogen  - Nitrogen (N) increases plant height, panicle number, leaf size, spikelet number, and number of filled spikelets, which largely determine the yield capacity of a rice plant. Panicle number is largely influenced by the number of tillers that develop during the vegetative stage. Spikelet number and number of filled spikelets are largely determined in the reproductive stage. A rice crop requires about 50 kg/ha of N fertilizer for each ton in additional grain yield.

Phosphorus - Proper phosphorus (P) nutrition is critical for producing maximum rice grain yields. Phosphorus is very important in the early vegetative growth stages. Phosphorus promotes strong early plant growth and development of a strong root system. It is important to rice plants because it promotes tillering, root development, early flowering, and ripening.

Potassium - Modern high-yielding rice varieties absorb potassium in greater quantities than any other essential nutrient. In farmers’ fields across Asia, total K uptake rates of a crop yielding 5 t/ha are in the range of 100 kg/ha, of which more than 80% are concentrated in the straw at maturity. For yields greater than 8 ton/ha, total K uptake may even exceed 200 kg/ha.

Sulfur - Sulfur plays an important role in the biochemistry and physiology of the rice plant, mainly in chlorophyll production, protein synthesis, and carbohydrate metabolism. S deficiency has been reported from Bangladesh, Burma, Brazil, Indonesia, India, Nigeria, Philippines and Thailand. 

Calcium - Calcium is important for the build-up and functioning of cell membranes and the strength of cell walls. Most calcium-related disorders of crops are caused by unfavorable growing conditions and not by inadequate supply of calcium to the roots. Rapidly growing crops in hot windy conditions are most at risk. Deficiencies can also develop under waterlogging, soil salinity, high potassium or ammonium supply, and root disease.

Zinc - In plants, Zn is critical for many physiological functions, including the maintenance of structural and functional integrity of biological membranes and the facilitation of protein synthesis. Of all micronutrients, Zn is required by the largest number of enzymes and proteins. 

Other Nutrients - B, Fe, Si also affect the yield and quality of rice crop.

Nutrient deficiencies of rice please view: Common nutrient deficiencies & Overfertilization - Rice


Suggested Fertilizers


FORMULAR: NPK 15-15-15



 FORMULAR: NPK 19-19-19+TE & NPK15-15-30+TE

 APPLICATION PERIOD:  1st:  at peak tillering ; 2nd at heading ; 3rd at milky stage

 APPLICATION RATE: 8.8-10kg/ha @ 2.5% spray solution

 SPRAY VOLUME:  350-400 L/ha


 FORMULAR: NPK 12-2-45 

 APPLICATION PERIOD:  Three sprays at 40 & 60 & 75 days after sowing

 APPLICATION RATE: 8.8-10kg/ha @ 3% spray solution

 SPRAY VOLUME:  350-400 L/ha